The immediate answer is God-just ask any seven-year-old. Without wanting to get overly technical (or to contradict any seven-year-old) I do want to point out that the immediate answer, while correct, does not say all that can be said about the matter. Of course God created the heavens; however, if we read carefully we will see that a more nuanced explanation is unveiled in Scripture.

          Consider Psalm 33:6, for example. The Psalmist asserts that, “By the word of the LORD the heavens were made.” According to this passage the LORD is the source of all created things whereas his word is the instrument through which he created.

          How did God create the universe? He spoke it into existence. His word created all things.

          This should not surprise us because it is not new information to us. The first chapter of Genesis gives us the narrative account of God creating the universe and each time something new comes into existence it is as a result of God speaking. (Genesis 1:3, light; Genesis 1:11, trees and plants; and so on).

          Believe it or not this would not have overly surprised a Greek philosopher in the first century either. They, too, had an understanding of the universe that allowed for a rational force being at the heart of all created things. A word in action, a rational plan being carried out, an ordered expression of supreme intelligence: all of these philosophical ideas were captured in the Greek word, logos. This force, the word (or at least a word) was responsible for the creation of the universe.

          What would have shocked the hair off of any Greek philosopher is exactly what created such a scandal among the Jews: the New Testament’s claim that the instrument of creation, the Word of God, the logos, became a human being. Such an idea was preposterous to a Greek and blasphemous to a Jew. And yet, that is exactly what the Prologue to John’s gospel asserts.

          Who made the heavens? Jesus did.